Internet Identity

Internet Identity Workshops: Biannual unconferences worth attending
Identity Commons: Wiki and community
The Qiy Scheme*4: Governance principles around online identity

Crypto-Identity

Tell me Who You Are, 2016: White paper by Vinay Gupta
Understanding Identity in the Context of Zooko's Triangle, 2016: by John Lilic
uPort*2: An identity project by Consensys, unreleased
Blockchain Identity: Solving the Global Identification Crisis, 2015
Blockstack*3: Decentralized DNS and identity
The Blockstack White Paper - looking up people as easily as you look up web sites
ID2020*3: Digital identity for people at risk
IDCubed*3: Research group working on Open Mustard Seed and more
OneName*4: A blockchain namespace for people
OpenMustardSeed*2: identity, trust, and personal data management platform (spinoff from MIT)
Proof of Individuality*3: Uses humans (!) to prove that you only have one Ethereum account
ShoCard*3: Mobile-first identity built on blockchain
Civic*2: Free identity protection and theft prevention

Reptutation and Trust

Codius*3: Ripple provides an open-source trust-based platform for executing smart contracts that works with their currency. An alternative to Ethereum and Ether. 
KYC Chain*3: Trust consensus for trading systems. 
Cetas*3: Trust KYC data for trading systems. 
BlockScore*4: Identity and entity verification

Cryptocurrencies

CoinMarketCap*5: Charts and comparisons of most currencies. See how many there are!
Digital Currency Council: Events, classes, certifications, research, news

Bitcoin

Bitcoin.org: The original site for the Bitcoin community. Includes good tutorials. 
The Bitcoin.org high-level explanationow Bitcoin Works: A decent video explanation of bitcoin mechanics for semi-technical people.
Neighborhood Pool Watch has many up-to-date statistics and graphs on the Bitcoin network. 
The Kahn Academy Bitcoin/blockchain video series
WeUseCoins.com: A short introduction and nice video
99Bitcoins.com: A set of video tutorials on getting started with Bitcoin
The Lightning Network: A proposal to fix the scalability problem - worth reading

Blockchain

The DASH white paper: DASH is an alternative coin with its own settlement scheme
Hyperledger: A collaboration of many companies and the Linux Foundation to address various blockchain challenges. 
There’s a Blockchain for That!, by Scott Rosenberg
Understanding Blockchains by Analogies (2016), by Kieren James-Lubin
The Business Insider Graphical Blockchain Overview: It's pretty good, and pretty short.
Blockchain for Finance (2015): Short FN video
The Deloitte Blockchain Report (2016)
Ledger, a scholarly journal publishing blockchain-related research

Browsers

Mist - a short technical tour: video
Brave*3: Open source browser that blocks ads and lets you pay for content using Bitcoin.
MetaMask*2: Turns your existing browser into a Web3 browser
Syng*3: A mobile Ethereum browser

Internet of Things

Filament*3: Wireless sensor large-scale networks for real-time monitoring and management

Mining

The 21 largest Bitcoin miners (2015) Business Insider listicle
How Mining Works (2014): Coindesk article

Cloud Mining

Hashflare
Hashplex
Bitcoin Cloud Services

Digital Signatures

Blockchain-based Digital Signatures Explained (2016), by Franco Amati
BTProof*4: Timestamp anything into the BitCoin blockchain
BlockSign*4: Legally sign permanently in minutes
Factom*4: Timestamp any document into the blockchain

Blockchain Explorers

What is a blockchain block explorer?: video explanation
Blockchain.info*3
BlockExplorer*3: Bitcoin blocks
Blockr*3: Bitcoin blocks
Cryptoid.com list of alternative coin blockchain explorers
Ether.Camp*3: Ethereum explorer
EtherChain*3: Ethereum blockchain explorer; great stats on the Ethereum network.

Blockchain Intelligence

Sabr*3: Multi-chain criminal activity monitoring
Chainalysis*3: Analysis, due diligence, monitoring, compliance, identification.
Elliptic*3: On-chain analytics to track down the bad guys. 

Distributed Apps

Ether.Fund dAppstore*2
Ethercast dAppstore*3
Dappstore.io*3: Find apps from your Ethereum node.
Lisk*2: Distributed app infrastructure/platform (not Ethereum)

Cryptolaw

Cryptolawyer.net: A blog and resources for lawyers to get started. 
Codex: a legal scripting language for Ethereum: by Pelle Braendgaard.

DAO: Decentralized Autonomous Organizations

DAOs, DACs, DAs, and More (2014), a guide to decentralized terminology by Vitalik Buterin
Singularity Hub article/interview (2016)
Wikipedia definition: worth reading
What does it Take for a DAO to Succeed?, by William Mougayar
Digix: Using a crowdsale to distribute their stock. 
Wings.ai, a smart DAO-creation platform

Development platforms

Applied Blockchain*3: Blockchain developers for hire. Smart. 
BlockApps*2: From ConsenSys
Bloq*3: Enterprise tools, support, and infrastructure. 
Chain.com*3: Very well funded platform, commercial-grade APIs.
Gem*2: Smart group, well funded.
Multichain*3: Development shop and platform in the UK.
Open Mustard Seed*3: A new platform for personal data and trustless interaction.
Stellar*3: An open-source, nonprofit platform for developing financial apps. 
Symbiont*3: Allows you to design and deploy securities and derivatives. 
Tendermint*3: Full-featured Ethereum-compatible permissioned blockchain platform for enterprise
TradeBlock*4: Institutional platform for managing currencies, assets, and contracts
Tradle*3: An alternative platform for transactions (not Ethereum-based)

Decentralized Computing

Urbit*2: An alternative operating system for decentralized computing
Golem Project*2: A decentralized processing platform

Ethereum

The Ethereum White Paper, 2013: Vitalik Buterin
The Ethereum Yellow Paper, 2014: Gavin Wood
Ethereum — the World Computer, 2015: Gavin Wood (video) 
Ethereum web site
Here Comes the Blockchain Epoch (2015), by Andrew Keys and ConsenSys
Ethereum 101 - tutorial web site
What’s Next to Build, (2015): A thought piece by Gavin Wood on what comes next.
 

Ethereum Network

Ethernodes: Network status.
Etherchain.org: Statistics and blockchain exploration for the Ethereum network.
Ether.camp: A sophisticated Ethereum blockchain explorer for developers
Etherscan.io: A blockchain explorer for Ethereum. 
Ethstats: A page that tracks the Ethereum network.

Hashing

A good explanation of hashing

Key Management

Cryptocorp
 

News Sites

CryptoCrunch
CoinDesk
The-Blockchain

Notaries

The OpenTransactions white paper: A framework for trustless verification of secure contracts.

Processing

Ethereum Computation Market*2

Smart Contracts

Are Smart Contracts Cryptocurrency’s Killer App?, 2014: FastCompany article
Unpacking Smart Contracts, by Pelle Braendgaard of ConsenSys
The Three Pillars of a CryptoLaw Ecosystem, by Gavin Wood
Eris Industries*3: Providing libraries of smart contracts, development environments, and more. 
Ether.Fund smart contract repository*3
EtherParty smart contract platform*3
Monax *3
RootStock smart contract platform*3
OpenTransactions: A set of open-source protocols and APIs for powering smart contracts
Profeth*2: Interoperable smart contract ecosystem
SmartContract.com*3: Automatide contract verification and real-time monitoring
BitShares*5: Industrial-strength smart-contract platform for fast (NASD-speed) transactions, bonds, assets, etc. Can use SmartCoins.
Counterparty*3: Wallets, bets, assets, and smart contracts, using the Bitcoin blockchain. 

Security

 

Sidechains

The Sidechain white paper (2014?): Detailed explanation and spec.
BlockStream*3: The Liquid sidechain enables fast settlements. Well funded. More to come.

Storage

BigChain*3: Massive scale and throughput - could be a game changer. 
BigChain White Paper (2016): Everything you ever wanted to know about decentralized storage.
The Interplanetary File System*3; storage that can’t be killed and lasts forever
IPDB*2: The decentralized database
FileCoin*3: A currency designed to enable a decentralized storage network
Keybase*3: Storage system with its own set of protocols
Maidsafe*4: A P2P storage system started in 2006.
SIA*4: An "enterprise grade" decentralized storage system. 
Storj*3: Cloud- and blockchain-based encrypted P2P storage - already has over 3 petabytes online!

 

Triple Ledgers

Triple-Entry Accounting: History and Explanation, 2005: by Ian Grigg
Ascribe*3: Helps creatives datestamp their original works.
Regis*2: Register your digital assets uniquely on the Ethereum blockchain

Tokens

A Gentle Introduction to Digital Tokens, by Antony Lewis
iota Token*2: Smart (non-blockchain) tokens for fast, autonomous communication between sensors, devices, systems. 
CoinDaddy*3: A service that treats tokens similar to domain names. 
Tokenly*4: a meta-platform for creating crowdfunding tokens.
The Tokenly White Board Explainer, a nice video on Tokenly