Accounting

Balanc3: An open-source accounting and smart contract platform from Consensys
TallySticks*2: Invoicing and payment reconciliation (Beta coming soon?)Advertising
XBRL on the blockchain explained: XBRL.org

Agriculture

Farmshare*2: A ConsenSys project

Asset Management

Coloredcoins.org: learn about colored coins on the Bitcoin blockchain
Digital Asset Holdings*4: Advanced asset-management and trading protocols and tools.

Banking

BTC Jam*3: Personal peer to peer lending with Bitcoin
Streami*3: Streamlining remittance payments
Chromaway*4: Colored coins (tokens) for representing and trading various assetsBonds
OverStock.com Offers the first Smart Bond (2015): Wired article
EtherPlan*3: Wealth management on the blockchain

Central Banking (issuing fiat currency)

Ecurrency.net: A central-banking solution package
Monetas: A full, end-to-end solution suite

Compliance

Chainalysis*3: Tools for understanding blockchain relationships and compliance. 
Libratax*3: Helps track compliance and tax issues on the blockchain.

Consumer Products

Neura*3: Connects your devices to an information hub that helps make them smarter. Ecommerce
Fiserv payment tokens*4: Use tokens rather than currency inside your system.
Purse*3 lets you use Bitcoin to get great deals on overstock and unused gift cards.
Ribbit*3: Loyalty tokens

Design firms

Nylira: by Peng Zhong
Proof of Work in London
Kryptodesign: by David Siegel

Games

Etheria World*3: A kind of board game where you buy and develop assets, all on Ethereum blockchain. 

Ecommerce

OpenBazaar*2: Like eBay but without the rent. Launching Q1 2016.
Rein*2: A market for freelancing services, paid in Bitcoin.
Safemarket*2: Sell anything, build your own market, make your own selling rules, settle disputes. 

Education

E-Governance

BitCongress*3: Set up laws, vote, take action on the blockchain.
DAOHub*3: By the guys at Slock.it, a DAO generator.
Otonomos*3: Create your company on the blockchain. 

Energy

ActiveGrid, 2015: A JV between ConsenSys and Lo3 Energy (video)
Grid Singularity*3: Smart grid and more. 

Equities & Crowdfunding

BnkToTheFuture*4: A worldwide fintech crowdfunding platform
Clearmatics*4: Clearing and settlement of OTC stocks
Exivest*2: Private equity exchange
StartJoin*4: Uses StartCoin, its own cryptocurrency, to fund and deliver profits from projects
String*3: Full-featured asset management, trading, exchange, settlement, etc. 
T0*5: A regulated blockchain-based system for public equities (used by Overstock). Decentralizes short selling.
Venture Equity Exchange*4: Smart contracts for corporate governance, fund raising, asset management, financial reporting, auditing, and shareholder relations.
WeiFund*3: A completely decentralized, open-source crowd-funding equity platform.

Gaming

FreeMyVunk*3: Virtual game tokens
Ownage*3: Take ownership of and trade your game content. 

Gambling

Satoshidice*4: A Bitcoin-based betting game.
BitcoinGamblingGuide*4: A list of current blockchain-based sports-betting sites. 

Insurance

Chain of a Lifetime (2014): Report on blockchain in personal insurance.
Dynamis*2: The first insurance DAO, starting with P2P unemployment insurance.  
Friendsurance*3: P2P insurance on the chain.
InsurETH*3: Insure your flight in seconds. I think this is an experiment.

Investing

GrayScale*3: Investment advisors

Health care

Legal

ContractCode*2: A new way to write contracts as code
Stake Ventures: Pelle Braendgaard's blog

Markets

Augur: A prediction market*4: Robin Hanson is an advisor.
BlockchainBackpack*2: A market for trading virtual (game-based) property
Gnosis: A prediction market from ConsenSys*3
FreeMyVunk*3: A market for trading virtual (game-based) property
Ownage*3: A market for trading game-based property
Slock.it*3: A market for selling or renting anything

Media

Decent*2: A decentralized content distribution system
AKASHA*2: A decentralized messaging and publishing system powered by Ether

SaltLending: Asset platform for bitcoin holders and cash investors

Messaging

Matrix: A decentralized messaging platform

Music

UjoMusic*3: A new music platform from Consensys
Audiocoin: A music coin that pays everyone for going P2P

Natural Resources

Oracles

Reality Keys*3: Will try to provide oracles on just about anything
Oraclize*3: Oracle as a service

Publishing

Bitverse description: A proposal for decentralized web sites.

Blockchain Recruiters & Job Boards

Blocktribe
Coinality
IT Emerging Partners

Real Estate

Midasium*2: Smart contracts for real estate
Bitland*3: Using blockchain to establish title and transfer, starting in Ghana.
Ubitquity*3: Real-estate focused on-chain asset management.

Recruiting

Coinality*3: Job listings for jobs that pay in coins. 

Science

Search

Security

Civic: Identity Theft Protection

Sharing economy

Arcade City*3: Ride sharing on the blockchain (great momentum)
Lazooz*3: Ride sharing on the blockchain. 

Social Networks

Synereo*3: Blockchain-based social network, owned by its users

Smart Contracts

Eris Industries*4: Smart contract development and libraries
EtherParty*4: Smart contract workflow and deployment

Supply chain

CargoChain project (2015): Deloitte hackathon winner
Provenance*3: A blockchain-driven traceability system that helps you incorporate all aspects of production and delivery into a product. See their white paper
SkuChain*3: Making supply-chain documents smart and active.

Tickets

Lava*3: Resellable event tickets