Bitcoin

The Bitcoin white paper, 2008
The Visual History of Bitcoin

Blockchain

Beyond Bitcoin: Use cases for decentralized enterprise software.
In Proof We Trust, by Dominic Frisby
What is the Blockchain? A great five-minute intro video. 
Deloitte blockchain report - a good explanation.
Change Everything Forever - a nice cool short video.

Ethereum

Ethereum — the World Computer, 2015: Gavin Wood (short intro video)
The Ethereum white paper, 2013: Vitalik Buterin. Made the central argument for a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine plus cryptocurrency.
The Ethereum Yellow Paper, 2014: Gavin Wood. Put the implementation details in place. 
The Future Will be Decentralized, 2014: TED talk by Charles Hoskinson
Introduction to Ethereum and Smart Contracts, 2016: ConsenSys thought piece

Shared Ledgers

A nice introduction by Allens law. 

Alternative Visions

Urbit: The design of a digital republic

Societal Change

Swarmwise, by Rick Falkvinge